(Wikipedia) - The Algiers Accords of January 19, 1981, were brokered by the Algerian government between the United States and Iran to resolve the Iran hostage crisis. The crisis arose from the takeover of the American embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979, and the taking hostage of the American staff there. By this accord the 52 American citizens were set free and able to leave Iran.
Among its chief provisions are:
The US would not intervene politically or militarily in Iranian internal affairs
"The United States pledges that it is and from now on will be the policy of the United States not to intervene, directly or indirectly, politically or militarily, in Iran's internal affairs."
The US would remove a freeze on Iranian assets and trade sanctions on Iran
Both countries would end litigation between their respective governments and citizens referring them to international arbitration, namely the Iran – United States Claims Tribunal.
The US would ensure that US court decisions regarding the transfer of any property of the former Shah would be independent from "sovereign immunity principles" and would be enforced
Iranian debts to US institutions would be paid
The US chief negotiator was Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher, while the chief Algerian mediator was the Algerian Foreign Affairs Minister Mohammed Benyahia.
(Lew Rockwell) - by Michael S. Rozeff Unfortunately, U.S. didn’t want to make peace between it and Iran a policy. It wanted to un-do the Iranian Revolution. The U.S. did not follow up the Algiers Accords with further moves toward peace.
It did just the opposite.
The U.S. didn’t keep the bargain. It sided with Iraq after Iraq invaded Iran in 1980. It imposed sanctions in 1984, 1987 and in the 1990s. The U.S. tried to destabilize the Iranian government, isolate it and keep it out of the World Trade organization.
Economic sanctions enacted by Congress are politically-caused interference. The Senate Banking Committee is about to enact more of these sanctions. Their open aim is "to force Iran to abandon its nuclear ambitions". This is political interference. This violates the Algiers Accords.
There is a rather long list of measures that the Committee says is "designed to increase pressure on Iran’s government." The political interference of these sanctions is evident from the latter statement. In addition, the Senate measure directly targets the IRGC (Iran Revolutionary Guard Corps). This is a branch of Iran's military, with obvious political importance.
The U.S. government is once again violating the Algiers Accords, as it has in the past. However, the U.S. has not officially abrogated the Algiers Accords. It will only do so when it decides it can gain from doing so. It wants to maintain the option, for example, to seize Iranian assets.
Meanwhile, the U.S. is acting hypocritically by supporting the Accords provisions against lawsuits brought by the hostages.
Experiencing the sanctions for decades, observing all this and knowing what happened to Gaddafi, how can Iran trust the word of the U.S.? How can it view the U.S. as anything but a hostile power that is aiming to un-do its revolution? And when Israel, an ally of the U.S., makes strong and plain threats against Iran, what else can Iran think but that the U.S. and Israel are out to get it, not just halt its nuclear program, but overturn it and introduce the regime change that some like Tom Ridge have openly advocated?
The U.S. Banking Committee acknowledges that previous U.S. sanctions haven't achieved their objective. They say "it is now clear that the steps taken thus far by the international community have not been sufficient to force Iran to abandon its nuclear ambitions."
It has been argued by Lieutenant Colonel George T. Doran of the United States Air Force that economic sanctions are futile. Others have reached similar conclusions after studying many cases of economic sanctions.
It is not hard to understand why economic sanctions might hurt a country's economy or hurt companies that deal with a sanctioned country but still not cause the leaders of that country's state to alter a targeted policy or policies. One reason is that the leaders of a state are only indirectly affected by sanctions. They stand in a rather insulated and remote relation to political pressures from below that arise from sanctions. Any country has many political currents of which sanctions are only one. Another is that people in the country may rally around their government. A third reason is that sanctioned countries find ways around the sanctions, using other markets or trades.
Sanctions have other negative effects such as reducing the likelihood of diplomacy, raising the chance of war, raising the chance of retaliation, reducing trade and human exchanges, and driving a state to become isolated and more self-sufficient.
U.S. sanctions are said by the Senate Banking Committee to have slowed Iran's nuclear program, a program that is allowable and legal under the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (another accord that the U.S. has not lived up to), but where is the evidence that this is the case? How could the senators know this when that program has been interfered with by computer viruses introduced from without and from assassinations of nuclear scientists?
And even if Iran's peaceful nuclear program has been slowed by sanctions, what does that mean when we consider the objectives of the U.S. government? If Iran appears still to be achieving its objective but on a slower time frame, does that mean that the U.S. or Israel will ratchet up their actions and start a war to force Iran to stop what sanctions have failed to stop? In other words, once the U.S. has set forth on a path to interfere with Iran politically, if only by sanctions and then stiffer sanctions, it appears to have committed itself to continue on that path, even if the eventual outcome is outright war. That was the outcome in Iraq and Libya.
More and stiffer sanctions will not cause Iran to change its tune, not if the following accurately reflects the views of Iran’s most important leader:
"Khamenei has been described as consistent in his opposition to the United States and the Western World in general, reportedly including this theme into his speeches no matter whether the topic is foreign policy, agriculture or education. He has declared that it is ‘clear that conflict and confrontation between Islamic Republic of Iran and the U.S. is something natural and unavoidable since the United States is trying to establish a global dictatorship and further its own interests by dominating other nations and trampling on their rights. However, while ‘cutting ties with America is among our basic policies, and ‘any relations would provide the possibility to the Americans to infiltrate Iran and would pave the way for their intelligence and spy agents, Khamenei holds the door open to relations with the U.S. at some future date, saying ‘we have never said that the relations will remain severed forever. Undoubtedly, the day the relations with America prove beneficial for the Iranian nation I will be the first one to approve of that. However, in a speech to Iranian students on October 29, 2008, which was quoted on Iranian TV (as translated by MEMRI), Khamenei stated that ‘the Iranian people's hatred for America is profound. The reason for this (hatred) is the various plots that the U.S. government has concocted against Iran and the Iranian people in the past 50 years. The Americans have not only refused to apologize for their actions, but have continued with their arrogant actions."
This passage does not depict a man willing to be humiliated. Why should he back off of a peaceful nuclear program? Why should he implicitly acknowledge a kind of guilt or wrong-doing when Iran is blameless?
If sanctions do not have their intended effect, then war with Iran comes closer. Sanctions should be stopped.
Even forgetting sanctions, Israel is loose cannon unless restrained by the U.S., or so it appears to us who are not privy to the secret communications between these two governments. (Updated: Nov, 21, 2012)
After 444 days of captivity, American hostages were freed, only one day after Jimmy Carter's presidency term ended.
The Iran Hostage Crisis began on November 4, 1979 when a group called Students in the Path of Imam stormed the US embassy in Tehran. Only nine months earlier, the US embassy had been occupied by another Anti-American militant group called CFK on Valentine's Day. The reasons behind their action can be summarized as follows:
- Admission of ousted dictator, Mohammad Reza Shah to the US.
- Iranian fear of another CIA backed coup as it was experienced in 1953.
- US hostility towards Iran during and after the Iranian Revolution
- Suspicious espionage activities in the US Embassy in Tehran.
Ayatollah Khomeini, Iran's political and religious leader refused all appeals to release the hostages. Yet, two weeks later all non-American captives, and all female and minority Americans were release, citing these groups as oppressed by the United States.
After the unfortunate incident US blocked Iran's assets and pushed an economic embargo that lingered on to-date in forms of threats and sanctions. President Jimmy Carter was unable to diplomatically resolve the crisis, and on April 24, 1980, he launched a disastrous rescue mission called Operation Eagle in which eight U.S. military personnel were killed and no hostages rescued.
Three months later, the former shah died of cancer in Egypt, but the crisis continued.
An agreement between Iran and the United States was signed in Algiers on Jan, 19, 1981. Six of the embassy staff were in hiding for 3 months and had returned to U.S. as Canadian diplomats on Jan, 28, 1980. Right after Ronald Reagan was sworn in as the new president of the United States, the 52 captives held at the U.S. embassy in Tehran, were released on Jan, 20, 1981, The airplane carrying the hostages landed in West Germany on Jan, 21th, ending the 444-day Iran Hostage Crisis.
The old American embassy, now called the Spy Den located in the Taleghani Ave. in Tehran has been closed and the two countries do not officially have diplomatic ties ever since.
The US Embassy complex is now used as a cultural center. (Updated: Jan, 5, 2009)
(Wikipedia) - On January 26, 1981, a bomb exploded outside the San Francisco offices of Bank Melli Iran. According to the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, a bomb exploded at BMI branch in San Francisco, shattering windows and damaging the wall of the building where the explosive was planted. No injuries were reported from explosion at the Bank Melli Iran in San Francisco's Financial District and no arrests were made. A caller from the Jewish Defense League claimed credit for the attack. Another call came from a group called the American Revenge Committee assumingly formed to take revenge against Iran for treatment of the former hostages. The latter claim seemed not very credible.
However, JDL; apparently a terror organization continued its operations inside the US without any challenges until 1985, mostly targeting victims in order to intimidate the Muslim community in particular. Facing no legal boundaries because of protection from AIPAC, since 1985, the attacks became more lethal until the attempted bombing of the Syrian mission in New York in 1992.
On Dec, 12, 2002 two JDL leaders, chairman Irv Rubin, 56, and his associate Earl Krugel, 59, were arrested in California and charged with plotting to blow up a mosque, along with Muslim-American organizations, including MPAC offices, and the office of a congressman.
MPAC called upon the Justice Department to freeze JDL assets as soon as the FBI places the organization on its list of terrorist groups.
According to U.S. Attorney John S. Gordon the militants were arrested after the last component needed to make the bombs—explosive powder—was delivered to Krugel’s home.
In a 1986 study of domestic terrorism, the Department of Energy concluded: "For more than a decade, the Jewish Defense League (JDL) has been one of the most active terrorist groups in the United States.... Since 1968, JDL operations have killed 7 persons and wounded at least 22. Thirty-nine percent of the targets were connected with the Soviet Union; 9 percent were Palestinian; 8 percent were Lebanese; 6 percent, Egyptian; 4 percent, French, Iranian, and Iraqi; 1 percent, Polish and German; and 23 percent were not connected with any states. Sixty-two percent of all JDL actions are directed against property; 30 percent against businesses; 4 percent against academics and academic institutions; and 2 percent against religious targets." (Department of Energy, Terrorism in the United States and the Potential Threat to Nuclear Facilities, R-3351-DOE, January 1986, pp. 11-16)
At least two of the suspects in the 2010 murder of a French Muslim Saeed Bourarach appeared to have ties to the French chapter of the JDL In 2011, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police had launched an investigation against at least nine members of the JDL in regards to an anonymous tip that the JDL was plotting to bomb the Palestine House in Mississauga.
In 2011, the Canadian JDL organized a "support rally" for the English Defence League featuring a live speech, via Skype, by EDL leader Stephen Yaxley-Lennon.
The Canadian JDL has also organized rallies in support of far-right Israeli politician Moshe Feiglin and Dutch far-right politician Geert Wilders of the Party for Freedom. They have also announced their support for the Freedom Party of Austria.
On November 13, 2002, Irv Rubin reportedly committed suicide in jail when awaiting trial on charges of conspiracy to bomb private and government property. Indications show that he was deliberately silenced so that JDL ties to AIPAC and other influential organizations and people wouldn't be revealed. He allegedly slit his own throat and jumped from a 20-foot-high railing!
On November 4, 2005, three days after he was transferred to a medium security federal prison Earl Krugel was murdered by another inmate, who struck him in the head with a block of concrete!
The current situation in Palestine is a clear indication of western support for Jewish religious terrorism that promotes racism. The West sometimes boasts about supporting the only Apartheid regime in the world, a strange kind of hypocrisy that goes unchallenged under the umbrella of a biased media. (Updated: Nov, 17, 2012)
Court hearings started on March, 17, 1981 for Abbas Amirentezam who was charged with espionage.
Abbas Amirentezam was the spokesman and Deputy Prime Minister in the Interim Cabinet of Mehdi Bazargan after the Islamic Revolution in 1979.
He was born from a Jewish father and later converted to Islam and changed his last name from Ravaghian to Amirentezam.
After the coup of 1953, Amirentezam approached Mehdi Bazargan at the Technical University of Tehran. He successfully infiltrated the National Resistance Movement and became a trustee to deliver a letter to Nixon’s aid, Richard Cottam, a high ranking CIA agent in Iran that managed covert operations in Iran. MI6 and CIA thus succeeded in creating a guided opposition in Iran.
Amirentezam went to US in 1963 where he studied and worked for some time and did not seem to have any visible political activities.
Amirentezam re-started his political activities by joining the Freedom Movement after Sep, 8, 1978.
Amirentezam met with John Stempel on Jan, 9, 1979 and discussed mutual relations with the US. Stempel was a Foreign Service officer at the American Consulate of Tehran (1975-1979).
After the seizure of the US embassy in Tehran, US cut diplomatic relations and continued it’s hostile policies towards Iran. Although such actions were strictly forbidden, Amirentezam met with top US officials while on duty as ambassador in Sweden, thus crossing a strict red line drawn by the regime that banned such contacts.
He was ordered to return to Tehran in 1981 and was arrested immediately. The court sentenced him to death on charges of espionage, but per Bazargan’s request his sentence was turned to life in prison. Amirentezam was later released from prison in 1998, but remains one of the most controversial Iranian political figures under house arrest to-date. (Updated: Aug, 15, 2010)
(Wikipedia) - During the Iran–Iraq War, the Iranian Air Force maintained at least one Boeing 707 aerial tanker which was used most effectively on April 4, 1981, refueling eight IRIAF F-4 Phantoms on long range sorties into Iraq to bomb the H-3 Al Walid airfield near the Jordanian border. It was a susprise attack by Iran against the Iraqi Air Force.
According to Iranian intelligence, the Iraqi Air Force removed most of her valuable assets to its Al Wallid Air base on the Baghdad-Amman highway close to Jordanian border, part of H-3 complex. There at least two squadrons equipped with ten Tu-22B and at least six Tu-16 heavy bombers as well as two other units with MiG-23BNs and Su-20s were hidden. Supposedly out of reach of the Iranian Air Force. But, Iraqi's were wrong. For their operation against Al Wallid, 31st and 32nd Tactical Fighter Wing (TFW) gathered their best F-4E Phantom crews, four F-14A Tomcats, one Boeing 747 airborne command post and three Boeing 707 tankers. since the interceptors of the Iraqi air defences were usually not very active, especially not in Northern Iraq, the only other obstacle was that Iranian pilots had to be careful to avoid SAMs in order to reach their target. Al-Wallid was almost 700 kilometres from Hamadan, and Phantoms had to fly over Baghdad.
To increase their chances, Iranian commanders decided to deploy their aircraft to Tabriz (TAB 2) first, and then from there they would have a "clean" route passing by Mosul and Kirkuk toward H-3. Since Phantoms could not reach their target without refueling in the air, two Boeing 707-3J9C had to be sent to Turkey in order to help the operation by meeting the attackers somewhere over northern Iraq.
The operation began in the early hours of the April 4,1981. The formation of eight F-4E, accompanied by two airborne reserves started from Tabriz (TAB 2) and crossed into Iraq. Two pairs of F-14 Tomcats stayed at low altitude over the border waiting for their return. Sometime earlier, two Boeing 707 started from Istanbul International Airport in Turkey (officially in order to return to Iran) and clandestinely diverted from international commercial route in order to fly into Iraq. Flying at very low altitude between mountains of north-west Iraq, two tankers met the Phantom formation and topped their fuel tanks, before escaping without an incident back towards Tabriz. The Phantom attackers then turned toward their prime target. The surprise was terrible for Iraqi's, not a single Iraqi interceptor on three bases of H-3 complex was in the air or ready to start.
The Phantoms split their formation into two sections coming from several different directions and attacked different parts of the base. First they bombed both runways at Al-Wallid in order to block any Iraqi fighters from taking off. Then further, bombs destroyed several hardened aircraft shelters. In the meantime, cluster bombs of the second group of Phantoms wrecked three large hangars, two radar stations and five Iraqi bombers. Subsequently, other parked aircraft were strafed. Iraqi's still hadn't reacted, even their anti-aircraft fire was weak, Phantoms had enough time to make multiple attacks and hit one enemy aircraft after another with the fire from their guns. No less than 48 different planes were claimed as destroyed or badly damaged at the end.
Finally, the whole Iranian formation turned back towards their base. Not even one F-4E was damaged during the attack on Al-Wallid and although many Iraqi interceptors were hasty scrambled toward them, none could catch up with Phantoms.
The Iranian attack against Al-Wallid is the most successful such operation against any air base since 1967. Never again would only eight aircraft destroy such a large number of enemy aircraft on the ground in one mission. (Updated: Sep, 21, 2012)
Saddam Hussein's main supplier was the Soviet Union. He was sent its best equipment : Mig 29 planes, T 72 tanks, artillery, gunboats and Scud missiles. Russians were not the only one!
According to the document # D-53/4/2099 in the archives with the ministry of defense of the toppled Baath regime, the outcome of a visit by the French vice president during a visit to Baghdad was summarized in a report. The French supplied Iraq with high tech fighter and bomber jets, missile technology and hardware, sophisticated landmines and other military equipment that guaranteed a long war with Iran. In the meantime, supplying Iraq with small scale atomic bombs were discussed for Saddam to have a winning card against the patriotic Iranian army. France agreed to provide Iraq with 133 Mirage F1 jet fighters over a 10-year period. It is reckoned that during the 1980s, 40% of France's arms exports went to Iraq.
Indeed many other Western countries - including the United States, Britain, West Germany and Italy - also helped Iraq with equipment and expertise, both civilian and military, and with finance. Iraq's Arab neighbours in the Gulf, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia among them saw revolutionary Iran as a threat and poured money into Baghdad. Americans supplied Iraq with satellite photographs and chemical weapons. Iranians remember their cities being hit by French missiles and planes and Saddam's use of weapons of mass destruction.
However, Iranian industry has still been heavily dependent on French imports, while French oil companies were the first to penetrate the U.S. economic embargo; thus depicting the complexity of today's international politics and global economy. (Updated: Dec, 22, 2008)
Ayatollah Khamenei was seriously injured after a bomb inside a tape recorder went off in Abuzar Mosque in Tehran on June, 27, 1981.
In the midst of the Iran–Iraq War, the MKO terrorist group started armed attacks around the country and plotted bombs to create fear among civilians. On June, 23 a bomb exploded in Qom railway station killing seven people and wounding more than 50 passengers. The following day, a bomb plot near a school in Tehran was discovered and deactivated.
On June, 26 mid-term Majlis elections were held around Iran. Ayatollah Khamenei, who leaded the Friday prayer sermons in Tehran, criticized ex-president Banisadr who was dismissed on June, 22 for siding with MKO. Ayatollah Khamenei was himself one of the next targets of serial assassination attempts against leaders of the Islamic Republic. Fortunately, the bomb plotted in the tape recorder did not function well and he did not lose his life although his arm became permanently dysfunctional. MKO never accepted responsibility for the plot. There was a note from the Forghan group which was actually dissolved a year before and they supposedly had no operating team in Iran at that time.
On the same day, a bomb exploded in Enghelab Square and a bomb was detected at the Valiasr-Taleghani intersection which was deactivated.
The next day, on June, 28, 1981 a very strong bomb exploded at the headquarters of the Islamic Republic Party in Tehran killing Ayatollah Beheshti and 72 of top Iranian officials. The plotter was a MKO member. The ousted terrorist group knowingly wanted to eliminate masterminds of the Islamic Republic and destabilize the country which was at war. Unfortunately, some young people did not know what was behind the beautiful slogans of this heinous group and fell prey to them. Some of them ended up in camps in Iraq, still leading low life acting against their nation.
Ayatollah Khamenei played a very important role as Imam Khomeini's representative during the Iran–Iraq War. He was appointed as Supreme Leader after Imam Khomeini passed away on June, 4, 1989. (Updated: Jul, 17, 2010)
(Wikipedia) - The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal (IUSCT) is an international arbitral tribunal established out of an agreement between Iran and the United States, under an understanding known as the Algiers Accords of January 19, 1981. The Algiers Accords were the outcome of negotiations between Iran and the United States, mediated by Algeria, to resolve a Hostage Crisis. In exchange for the release of the hostages by Iran, the United States agreed to unfreeze Iranian assets. The tribunal was established to resolve claims by United States nationals for compensation for assets nationalized by the Iranian government, and claims by the governments against each other; any national court proceedings were nullified by the declarations. This was necessary in part because a large part of the frozen Iranian funds had already been transferred by United States courts to United States nationals as compensation; the declarations resulted in the reversal of all these United States court decisions.
The seat of the Tribunal is The Hague. It held its first meeting in the Peace Palace on July 1, 1981; in April 1982, it moved to its own premises in The Hague.
The Tribunal is composed of nine arbitrators: three appointed by Iran, three appointed by the United States, and a further three (neither Iranian nor United States nationals) appointed by the previous six arbitrators. The(Wikipedia) - Tribunal hears individual cases in the formation of three-member chambers (consisting of one Iranian, one American, and one from the three appointed by the other six); it meets as a full tribunal to consider disputes between the two governments, and cases referred from the chambers.
The Tribunal closed to new claims by private individuals on January 19, 1982. In total, it received approximately 4,700 private US claims. The Tribunal has ordered payments by Iran to US nationals totaling over USD 2.5 billion. Almost all private claims have now been resolved; but several inter-governmental claims are still before the Tribunal.
Iranian officials have called for the release of frozen assets; according to private businessman and economic analyst Saeed Laylaz, the frozen assets held in the United States amount "to something like $8 billion to $12 billion".
In 1986 an English court held the tribunal to be void under its own lex loci arbitri (which the court held to be Dutch law) (Updated: Jul, 21, 2012)
2nd presidential election: Of 71 nominees for the presidential race, only 4 were qualified. Of 22,687,017 Iranians eligible to vote 14,532,869 people participated in the election marking a %64.2 participation rate. Mr. Rajayi leaded the election with %87.87 of the votes and became the second president of Iran. At the time, Iran was at war with Iraq and economic sanctions and embargo made it a hard time for the government. He assigned Mr. Bahonar, a prominent Islamic scholar as the prime minister who was approved by Majlis on Aug, 4. On Aug, 30, 1981, a bomb went off at the Prime Minister's building at 15:00 o'clock, taking lives of both president Rajayi and his prime minister.
The first elected Iranian president Abolhasan Banisadr went at odds with Ayatollah Khomeini during a power struggle after the revolution. He was then dismissed and had to flee the country for France. Political opponents were swiftly eliminated from Iran and a single party system began. Mr. Rajayi was the prime minister during Banisadr's presidency.
Rajayi was born in 1933 in Qazvin and lost his father when he was 4. He lived an active political life. In 1963 he was arrested because of his membership in the Freedom Movement, then became a member of MKO and was sent to prison in 1973 until he was freed in 1979. (Updated: Oct, 23, 2008)
President Rajayi and Prime Minister Bahonar, together with some other state officials were killed after a bomb attack on the Prime Minister's office in Tehran. A dissident leftist Islamic group called MKO took the responsibility for the bombing. It was one of the bloodiest power struggles in contemporary Iranian history. All political fractions that were involved in toppling the Pahlavi regime wanted their share of the government, but when Saddam invaded Iran in 1980 by a nod from western countries, the hardliners who had already built their own militia units and were supported by top clerics took the power in their own hands. Thus the first elected president Banisadr was deposed and had to flee the country.
Rajayi was then approved president by Ayatollah Khomeini and his Prime Minister was an approved cleric that had co-signed Islamic books taught in Iranian schools during the ousted regime. Reportedly, an infiltrator from MKO who gradually became a high ranking officer in the National Security Council left a suitcase bomb at the office where a meeting was going to take place and left the scene. The bomb went off and killed the last civil president of Iran. After this incident all presidents were approved clerics by the Guardian Council until 2005. Some years later, duties of the prime minister also became integrated inside those of the president. The Iran–Iraq War that lasted for 8 years damaged the Iranian economy besides creating a villain theocracy that has been ignoring the same people that once fought for independence, freedom and Islamic Republic. (Updated: Aug, 29, 2008)
The interim government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (September 2, 1981 – October 29, 1981) was established after the assassination of Mohammad Ali Rajayi (President) and Mohammad Javad Bahonar (Prime Minister) on August 30. In accordance with the constitution, a Provisional Presidential Council formed on August 30 and proposed Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani as Prime Minister to the Majlis. Majlis voted in favor of him on September 2. His cabinet also received approval of the Majlis on September 3. The main responsibility of this government was holding presidential elections.
Members of the cabinet
List of members of Mahdavi Kani's cabinet was as follows:
Prime Minister: Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani
Agricultural: Mohammad Salamati
Commerce: Habibollah Asgaroladi
Post: Morteza Nabavi
Culture and Islamic Guidance: Abdol Majid Moadikhah
Defense and Armed Forces Logistics: Musa Namjoo
Economy: Hossein Namazi
Education: Ali Akbar Parvaresh
Energy: Hassan Ghafouri Fard
Foreign Affairs: Mir Hossein Mousavi
Health: Hadi Manafi
Housing and Urban: Mohammad Shahab Gonabadi
Industries: Mostafa Hashemi
Interior: Ali Akbar Nategh Nouri
Justice: Mohammad Asghari
Labor and Social Affairs: Mir Mohammad Sadeghi
Petroleum: Mohammad Gharazi
Roads: Hadi Nejad Hosseinian
Science and Culture: Mohammad Ali Najafi
On October 13, Ali Khamenei officially became president. His Prime Minister, Mir Hossein Mousavi received Majlis approval on October 29 (after Majlis' negative vote to Khamenei's first candidate, Ali Akbar Velayati) and then the new government replaced Mahdavi Kani's interim government.
Mahdavi Kani was elected as Chairman of the Assembly of Experts on March, 8 2011 after Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani resigned as Chairman. He was elected as member of Assembly of Experts in 2008 in a by-election from Tehran. (Updated: Feb, 25, 2012)
Ayatollah Seyyed Abdolhossein Dastgheyb was a prominent Shiite cleric who had fought against the Pahlavi regime and had served terms as political prisoner before the 1979 revolution. Born in Shiraz in 1913 he decided to go to Najaf when he lost his father at the age of 12. He performed Friday prayer sermons as Imam when he returned to Shiraz. After the revolution he was appointed as a member of the Assembly of Experts.
On Dec, 11, 1981, on his way to Friday prayers, he was assassinated by MKO and became the third Martyr of Altar. (Updated: Aug, 22, 2009)
3d presidential election: Of 46 nominees for the presidential race, only 4 were qualified. Of 22,687,017 Iranians eligible to vote 16,737,320 people participated in the election marking a %73.8 participation rate. Mr. Khamenei leaded the election with %95.04 of the votes. He assigned Mr. Mousavi as his prime minister and half of his cabinet were those of martyr Rajayi's.
Mr. Ali Khamenei was born in Mashhad in 1939 and became a cleric. In 1957 he went to Najaf to continue his studies in religion. He was politically active during the Pahlavi 2 reign and was sent to exile several times. He was the mastermind behind the Fighting Clerics Society and was sent to prison 6 times before the revolution. He was seriously injured in a terrorist attack on June, 27, 1981 when a bomb went off in Abazar mosque. (Updated: Feb, 8, 2008)
- Ayatollah Seyyed Abdolhossein Dastgheyb : آيت الله سيد عبدالحسين دستغيب
- Iran – United States Claims Tribunal : ديوان داوري دعاوي ايران و آمريکا
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police : پليس سواره نظام سلطنتي کانادا(Gendarmerie royale du Canada)
- Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani : علي اکبر هاشمي رفسنجاني
- Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani : محمدرضا مهدوي کني
- American Revenge Committee : کميته انتقام آمريکا
- Jewish religious terrorism : تروريسم يهودي
- Mohammad Shahab Gonabadi : محمد شهاب گنابادي
- World Trade Organization : سازمان تجارت جهاني
- Freedom Party of Austria : حزب آزادي اطريش
- Ali Akbar Nategh Nouri : علي اکبر ناطق نوري
- English Defence League : ليگ انگليسي دفاع
- Hadi Nejad Hosseinian : هادي نژاد حسينيان
- Habibollah Asgaroladi : حبيب الله عسگراولادي
- Abdol Majid Moadikhah : عبدالمجيد معديخواه
- Jewish Defense League : ليگ يهودي دفاع
- Stephen Yaxley-Lennon : استفان يکسلي لنون
- University of Tehran : دانشگاه تهران
- Hassan Ghafouri Fard : حسن غفوري فرد
- Ali Akbar Parvaresh : علي اکبر پرورش
- Assembly of Experts : مجلس خبرگان
- Mir Hossein Mousavi : ميرحسين موسوي
- Mohammad Ali Najafi : محمدعلي نجفي
- Iran Hostage Crisis : بحران گروگانگيري ايران
- Ayatollah Khomeini : آيت الله خميني
- Warren Christopher : وارن کريستوفر
- Iranian Revolution : انقلاب ايران(1979 Revolution,Islamic Revolution)
- Islamic Revolution : انقلاب اسلامي
- Ali Akbar Velayati : علي اکبر ولايتي
- Abolhasan Banisadr : ابوالحسن بني صدر(Abulhassan Bani Sadr)
- Hashemi Rafsanjani : هاشمي رفسنجاني(Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani,Hashemi Bahramani) هاشمي بهرماني،اکبر هاشمي رفسنجاني
- Ayatollah Khamenei : آيت الله خامنه اي(Ali Hosseini Khameneyi,Ali Khamenei) علي حسيني خامنه اي
- Mohammad Reza Shah : محمدرضا شاه(Mohammadreza Shah) شاهنشاه،آريامهر،پهلوي
- Mohammad Salamati : محمد سلامتي
- Mohammed Benyahia : محمد بن يهيي
- Party for Freedom : حزب آزادي
- Michael S. Rozeff : مايکل س روزف
- Iranian Air Force : نيروي هوايي ايران(IAF,IRIAF,The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force) نيروي هوايي ارتش جمهوري اسلامي ايران،نهاجا
- Islamic Republic : جمهوري اسلامي
- Freedom Movement : نهضت آزادي
- Mohammad Asghari : محمد اصغري
- Mohammad Gharazi : محمد غرضي
- Security Council : شوراي امنيت
- Guardian Council : شوراي نگهبان
- Operation Eagle : عمليات عقاب
- Mostafa Hashemi : مصطفي هاشمي
- George T. Doran : جورج ت دوران
- Algiers Accords : پيماننامه الجزاير
- Bank Melli Iran : بانک ملي ايران(BMI)
- Saeed Bourarach : سعيد بوراراش
- Enghelab Square : ميدان انقلاب(Revolution Square,Meydan-e Enqelab)
- Supreme Leader : رهبر عظما
- John S. Gordon : جان اس گوردون
- Prime Minister : نخست وزير رئيس الوزرا
- Mehdi Bazargan : مهدي بازرگان
- Saddam Hussein : صدام حسين
- Hossein Namazi : حسين نمازي
- Hostage Crisis : بحران گروگانگيري(Iran Hostage Crisis)
- Morteza Nabavi : مرتضي نبوي
- San Francisco : سن فرنسيسکو سان فرانسيسکو
- United States : ايالات متحده
- Moshe Feiglin : موشه قيگلين
- Geert Wilders : گرت والدرز
- Iran–Iraq War : جنگ ايران و عراق
- Imam Khomeini : امام خميني
- Ronald Reagan : رونالد ريگان
- Friday prayer : نماز جمعه صلاة الجمعة
- Saudi Arabia : عربستان سعودي
- Mahdavi Kani : مهدوي کني
- Jimmy Carter : جيمي کارتر(James Earl Carter)
- Ali Khamenei : علي خامنه اي
- U.S. Embassy : سفارت ايالات متحده آمريکا
- West Germany : آلمان غربي
- Iranian Army : ارتش ايران
- Peace Palace : قصر صلح
- Soviet Union : اتحاديه جماهير شوروي
- Lew Rockwell : ليو راکول
- Saeed Laylaz : سعيد ليلاز
- Hadi Manafi : هادي منافي
- Musa Namjoo : موسي نامجو
- Mississauga : ميسيساگوا
- Palestinian : فلسطيني
- Amirentezam : اميرانتظام
- Earl Krugel : ارل کروگل
- Boeing 747 : بوئينگ 747
- Rafsanjani : رفسنجاني
- Boeing 707 : بوئينگ 707
- Bank Melli : بانک ملي(National Bank of Iran) بانک ملي ايران
- California : کاليفرنيا
- Tom Ridge : تام ريج
- Ayatollah : آيت الله
- Dastgheyb : دستغيب
- Wikipedia : ويکي پديا
- Irv Rubin : ايروين روبين
- Taleghani : طالقاني
- Valentine : ولنتاين
- Reza Shah : رضا شاه(Sardar Sepah, Reza Gholdor) رضا خان
- Palestine : فلسطين
- Istanbul : استانبول(Islambul)
- Egyptian : مصري
- Congress : کنگره
- Khamenei : خامنه اي
- Khomeini : خميني(Imam Khomeini)
- Lebanese : لبناني
- American : آمريكائي ينگه دنيائي
- Guardian : گاردين
- Banisadr : بني صدر(Abolhasan Banisadr)
- Beheshti : بهشتي(Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti) سيد محمد حسيني بهشتي،دکتر بهشتي
- Bazargan : بازرگان
- New York : نيويورک
- Al Walid : الوليد(Caliph Al Walid Abdomalek) وليد پسر عبدالملک،أبو العباس الوليد بن عبد الملک بن مروان بن الحکم الأموي القرشي
- Tactical : تاکتيکي
- Enghelab : انقلاب
- Phantom : فانتوم
- Spy Den : لانه جاسوسي
- Mashhad : مشهد(Mashad)
- Valiasr : وليعصر
- Bahonar : باهنر
- Algiers : الجزيره
- Mousavi : موسوي
- Hamadan : همدان
- Israeli : اسراييلي
- Iranian : ايراني اهل ايران ، وابستهبه ايران
- Austria : اتريش اطريش
- Germany : آلمان
- Baghdad : بغداد
- Islamic : اسلامي
- Britain : بريتانيا انگليس
- Algeria : الجزاير
- Gaddafi : قذافي
- Pahlavi : پهلوي(Pahlevi)
- Arabia : عربستان
- Senate : سنا(House of Senate,House of Lords) مجلس سنا،کاخ شنا
- Muslim : مسلمان(Moslem) مسلم
- Tehran : تهران(Teheran, Tahran) طهران
- Shiraz : شيراز تيرازيس
- Tabriz : تبريز(Tebriz)
- Soviet : شوروي
- Qazvin : قزوين(Ghazvin, Caspian) کاسپين
- Jewish : يهودي كليمي
- French : فرانسوي
- Saddam : صدام(Saddam ?ussein Tikriti) صدّام حسين تکريتي
- Turkey : ترکيه
- Kuwait : کويت(Coup-Wait)
- Syrian : سوريه اي
- Seyyed : سيّد(Seyed) سيد
- Sweden : سوئد
- Kirkuk : کرکوک
- Boeing : بوئينگ
- Israel : اسراييل فلسطين اشغالي
- Polish : لهستاني
- France : فرانسه(République française)
- Shiite : شيعه(Shia, Shi'a)
- German : آلماني
- Majlis : مجلس(Majles)
- Rajayi : رجايي(Mohammad Ali Rajayi,Rejaie,Rajayee) محمد علي رجايي
- Amman : عمان
- Skype : سکايپ
- Egypt : مصر(Al Mesr)
- Baath : بعث(Arab Socialist Baath Party) حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي
- Italy : ايتاليا
- Hague : لاهه
- Libya : ليبي
- Iraqi : عراقي
- Najaf : نجف نجف اشرف
- IRIAF : نهجا(Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force) نيروي هوايي جمهوري اسلامي ايران
- Dutch : هلندي
- MEMRI : ممري
- Armed : مسلح
- Islam : اسلام
- AIPAC : ايپک
- Saudi : سعودي
- Mosul : موصل
- Mehdi : مهدي(Mahdi)
- Nixon : نيکسون
- Walid : وليد
- IUSCT : آي يو اس سي تي
- Musa : موسي
- Scud : اسکاد
- F-14 : اف-14
- MPAC : امپاک
- Iraq : عراق(Al Aragh)
- Imam : امام(Emam)
- Post : پست
- IRGC : سپاه
- Arab : عرب
- Iran : ايران
- Shah : شاه پادشاه
- Qom : قم(Ghom)
- FBI : اف بي آي(Federal Bureau of Investigation)
- USD : دلار
- MKO : سمخ(PMOI,MEK,sazman-e mojahedin-e khalgh-e iran) سازمان مجاهدين خلق،گروهک منافقين
- MI6 : ام آي 6
- Mir : مير
- CFK : چريکهاي فدايي خلق(Cherikhay-e Fadayi Khalgh,OIPFG) سازمان چريکهاي فدايي خلق ايران
- EDL : اي دي ال
- DOE : دي او اي
- JDL : جي دي ال
- BMI : بي ام آي
- TFW : تي اف دبليو
- TAB : تب
- Mig : ميگ
- CIA : سيا(C.I.A.)
- US : ايالات متحده
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