The Iranian History 1991 AD


Shapour Bakhtiar Slain In France

Aug, 8, 1991 AD

Last Prime Minister of the Pahlavi regime Shapour Bakhtiar was found dead from stab wounds  aged 77 at his home outside Paris on Aug, 8, 1991. He was in office for only 36 days and tried to persuade Imam Khomeini to a settlement to save the monarchy.Shapour Bakhtiar, Iran's last Prime Minister before the Islamic revolution of 1979, was found dead at his home outside Paris. His throat had been cut while at least four security officers were guarding his house. Bakhtiar was appointed Prime Minister by the Shah in January 1979 in a desperate attempt to save the monarchy but he lasted only 39 days in office. Although he somehow paved the way for Khomeini's safe arrival from France, he was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court in May 1980 soon before he showed up in Paris where he formed the National Resistance Movement with headquarters in different European countries and two radio stations broadcasting his message to Iran. The Iranian regime was busy with eliminating political dissidents at the time.
In less than two months, France and Iran settled a dispute over a $1 billion loan granted by Shah.
French political and economic relationship with Iran are very suspicious. Iran-France relations were cut in 1987, after Iran refused to handle an embassy employee to be interrogated for bombings in Paris in 1986. After Hezbollah released French hostages held in Lebanon, diplomatic ties were restored in 1988.
Born in 1915 in Bakhtiar tribal region SW Iran, Shapour Bakhtiar lost his mother at the age of seven. After attending primary school in Shahrekord, he went to Isfahan. Somehow he ended up in Lebanon where he received his high school diploma from a French school. He was graduated from the Sorbonne University in 1939, actively participated in a Spanish uprising against General Franco and joined the French Resistance against German occupation during the WWII.
He returned to Iran in 1946 and started an active political life which cost him 6 years in prison as an active co-founder of the National Front. But in 1979, when he accepted Shah's offer to become Prime Minister, he was expelled from the National Front, During his short term however, he lifted censorship, freed political prisons and dissolved SAVAK.
Shapour Bakhtiar escaped an assassination attempt by five gunmen in July 1980. On July 14, 1990, French President, Francois Mitterrand pardonned five people involved in the assassination attempt. The incident touched off a wave of protests in French jails. The decision to free the assassins was said to be made for reasons of state, as part of a broader agreement negotiated secretly with Iran in exchange for the release of French hostages in Lebanon.
Ali Vakili Rad admitted at trial that he had been sent by his government to France to kill Bakhtiar and he was convicted of the murder of Shapour Bakhtiar in 1994 and judges ordered that he serve a minimum of 18 years of a life sentence, which would keep him in jail until 2012. (Updated: May, 6, 2009)

U.S. Secretly Passed Intelligence To Iraq

Oct, 28, 1991 AD

Young Iranians visit Khorramshahr's Sacred Defense Museum featuring the 8 year Iran-Iraq warShortly after taking office in January 1981, Ronald Reagan Administration secretly decided to aid Iraq directly in 1982. This fact provides evidence that Washington played a much greater role than was previously known in affecting the course of the long and costly IranIraq war in which U.S. asserted neutrality.
The decision to lend crucial help to Baghdad came after Iraq was on the verge of being overrun by Iran. Technology and intelligence helped Iraq avert defeat The covert Reagan Administration decision to supply intelligence to Iraq was initially reported in December 1986. The Administration hid the fact that C.I.A. was passing intelligence to Iraq.
During a Senate Committee hearings on October, 28, 1991 it was revealed that the U.S. intelligence assistance had actually begun in the beginning of the IranIraq War. Satellite imagery, communications intercepts and CIA assessments were forwarded to Iraqi commanders to show them where the Iranian weaknesses were. The United States continued to supply top-secret intelligence until the IranIraq War ended in 1988. Washington also looked the other way as American-made arms began to flow into Baghdad from Iraq's allies in the Middle East, starting in 1982. Jordan and Saudi Arabia sent Iraq small arms and mortars, among other weapons, and Kuwait sold Iraq thousands of anti-tank missiles. Kuwait supplied Saddam Hussein with lots of money and arms with U.S. consent. It was also acknowledged that by 1982 Jordan military was routinely diverting American-made helicopters to Iraq.
King Hussein of Jordan had persuaded the Reagan Administration to help Iraq. During the same period when the King was urging his own subjects to volunteer for service with the Iraq Army. Within a few months, C.I.A. stationed its own man in Baghdad whose sole reason for being was to handle the intelligence.
During the last years of IranIraq War, the U.S. military directly bombed Iranian oil platforms and tankers. It's recorded in history that a U.S. commander was decorated for shooting down the IR655 Iran Air civilian airplane killing all passengers and the crew on board. U.S. has been viewed as Iran's greatest enemy and labeled The Great Satan. (Updated: Apr, 25, 2009)

UN Recognizes Responsibility of Iran-Iraq War

Dec, 9, 1991 AD

Iran Iraq War :A young Iranian boys stands guard by Iraqi Prisoners Of War (POW)(Urdu Movies) - On December 9, 1991, just three weeks before the end of his tenure, the former UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar, submitted one of the most important reports he had ever prepared to the UN Security Council. His competence for preparing that report was based on Paragraph 6 of Resolution 598 which was adopted by the Security Council on July 20, 1987. Paragraphs 5 of his report clearly announced that the war between Iran and Iraq which had continued for several years had clearly started through breach of international law by Iraq. He added that the breach of international law included responsibility for the beginning of the conflict which was the main subject of Paragraph 6 of Resolution 598. De Cuellar added that the principle of international law which prohibited use of force and disrespect for territorial integrity of a member state, which is subject to Paragraph 6, has been breached. During that war, he noted, there had been many cases of breach of different principles of international humanitarian law.
Paragraph 6 of his report noted that Iraqs response to his letter dated August 14, 1991 contained no essential information and, therefore, he relied on previous explanations provided by the Iraqi government. He said those explanations fell short of convincing the international community. De Cuellar mentioned the attack against Iran on September 22, 1980 as the most prominent event which showed a breach of international law as specified in Paragraph 5 of his report. He added that aggression against Iran could not be justified on the basis of any principle or rule of international law or ethics.
In Paragraph 7, the former secretary-general of the United Nations acknowledged that even before the beginning of the war, Iraq had made encroachments upon Irans territory. He noted that such encroachment could not justify Iraqs aggression of Iran which had led to protracted occupation of Irans territory by Iraq.
The importance of the Security Councils recognition of Saddam Husseins Iraq as aggressor in the war with Iran arose from the message that was embedded in that recognition for the whole world. That message stemmed from the United Nations role in promoting the rule of law. Some 12 years after Iraq invaded Iran and 16 months following Iraqs invasion of Kuwait, the secretary-general announced a fact that the Security Council should have immediately proclaimed following the invasion of Iran by Iraq. Based on article 24 of the Charter of the United Nations, the Security Council is the main body responsible for protecting international peace and security. If the Council had recognized and announced Iraq as aggressor at the very beginning of the war, it would not have lasted eight years claiming about half a million lives and causing billions of dollars in damages. Iraq, on the other hand, would not have dared a few years later to invade its small southern neighbor and plunge the whole region in a dire international crisis. (Updated: Dec, 14, 2012)

Iran-Iraq Exchange Corpses

Dec, 17, 1991 AD

Martyr Bakeri and fellow Basij soldiers Iran-Iraq WarIran and Iraq partially exchanged corpses of victims of the 8 year war which started by Iraq's invasion in 1980. The body of Mohammad Javad Tondgooyan was among the victims. He was appointed Minister of Oil on Oct, 2, 1980 after in Rajayi's cabinet. Only one month later, on Oct, 30th, Tondgooyan and a group of colleagues were visiting southern oil fields in Abadan when they were taken captive by Iraqi forces. At the time the region was constantly under fire and that was his fourth attempt to enter the region which was the war zone.
They were transported by Iraqi forces to Basra. He was reportedly alive until the end of the war and the Baath regime tried to use him several times as a bargaining chip against Iran.
The cause and time of his death is not known and reports regarding this issue are classified. It was not unusual to torture prisoners of war to death in Saddam's regime. (Updated: Aug, 22, 2009)

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